Asian Journal of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences

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Phytochemical Constituents and Medicinal Properties of Different Extracts of Anacardium Occidentale and Psidium Guajava

Background: Folklore involves the use of parts of plants without isolating particular phytochemicals. The argument is that the synergy of the combined substances enhances the efficacy and dilutes toxicity. Modern pharmacy, however, prefers single ingredients on the grounds that dosage can be more easily quantified. One of such efforts includes detailed analysis of phytochemical constituents of such plants. Although much study has been carried out on phytochemical screening, the results may differ as a result of the biochemical variations within species, geographical locations, methods or modes of extraction and solvent used. Objectives: This work, therefore, aimed at carrying out a preliminary study of the phytochemistry of the extracts Anacardium occidentale (cashew) and Psidium guajava (guava) as a scientific rationale behind the medicinal uses of the plants. Methods: Aqueous and methanol extracts of leaf, bark and root cashew and guava were assayed quantitatively for tannin, total polyphenol, oxalate, saponin and alkaloid Results: Highest concentrations of the bioactive principles were detected in ethanolic extracts of the plants except in the case of saponin where the hot water extract produced the highest bioactive principle. In Guava was foung tannin-11.5mg/g, total polyphenol-1.67mg/g, alkaloid-59.85% and oxalate- 6.66. In Cashew tannin-15.38mg/g, total polyphenolics-2.00, alkaloid-39.90 and oxalate-8.13 was detected Conclusion: The detected bioactive principle, in this study, may be responsible for the documented and folklore beneficial effects. Results from this study also justified the use of alcohol in folklore extraction.

Author(s): Ojezele, Matthew Obaineh, Agunbiade, Shadrach