Hypselobarbus currently includes three valid species that possess a strong, osseous dorsal fin spine (modified ray). These inlcude H. dubius, H. micropogon and H. periyarensis. Hypselobarbus dubius (Day, 1867) from Bhavani River, Tamilnadu and Noolpuzha from Wynaad, Kerala is found to exhibit morphological variation. Upon closer examination, these populations represent a new species distinct from H. dubius. The new species, Hypselobarbus nilgiriensis, is diagnosed from its H. dubius by having more circumferential scale rows (34-35 vs. 30-33), more transverse breast scale rows (14-15 vs. 9-11) and more preanal scale rows (41-45 vs. 34-38).