Nanotechnology is an emerging technology seeking to exploit distinct technological advances of controlling the structure of materials at a reduced dimensional scale approaching individual molecules and their organised aggregates or supramolecular structures. These technological innovations, referred to as nanomedicines by the National Institutes of Health (Bethesda, MD, USA), have the potential to turn molecular discoveries arising from genomics and proteomics into widespread benefit for patients. Nanomedicine is a large subject area and includes nanoparticles that act as biological mimetics (e.g., functionalized carbon nanotubes) “nanomachines” (e.g., those made from interchangeable DNA parts and DNA scaffolds such as octahedron and stick cube), nanofibers and polymeric nanoparticles. The rapidly increasing new field of nanotechnology, opened up by rapid advances in science and technology, creates myriad new opportunities for advancing medical science and disease treatment in human health care. This article presents a brief review of nanomedicines with an emphasis on its various aspects associated i.e. introduction, background, objective, advances, physiological principles of nanomedicine. The article also reveals the concept of nanotoxicology from nanomedicines and non-medical nanoparticles.