Mosquito-borne diseases have an economic impact, including loss in commercial and labor outputs, particularly in countries with tropical and subtropical climates; however, no part of the world is free from vector-borne diseases. In mosquito control programs, botanical origin may have the potential to be used successfully as eggs, larvae, and adult. The larvicidal activity of crude benzene and ethyl acetate extracts of leaves of Caesalpinia pulcherrima were assayed for their toxicity against three important vector mosquitoes, viz., Culex tritaeniorhynchus, Aedes albopictus and Anopheles subpictus (Diptera: Culicidae). The larval mortality was observed after 24 h of exposure. All extracts showed moderate larvicidal effects; however, the highest larval mortality was found in benzene extract of against the larvae of Cx. tritaeniorhynchus, Ae. albopictus and An. subpictus with the LC50 and LC90 values were 150.47, 135.24, and 119.27 ppm and 282.57, 261.55, and 243.37 ppm, respectively. These results suggest that the leaf solvent plant extracts have the potential to be used as an ideal eco-friendly approach for the control of mosquitoes. This is the first report on the mosquito larvicidal activity of the reported Caesalpinia pulcherrima plant.