Hearing loss affects a high percentage of society. It may be due to diseases effecting middle ear or inner ear, may be congenital, age related or due to noise exposure. Various social and economic losses incurred by such individuals, laws and programs to help such persons are made from time to time. They have rights and duties. The national program for prevention and control of deafness, its objectives and recommendations. The various hearing related studies done so far in India and need to be done in future are the highlights of this paper.