Objectives The purpose was to determine the prevalence of the various types of deafness during affections currently encountered in the ear and eventually being able to have an effect on the child language. Patients and Methods It is about a retrospective survey having concerned 833 young patients aged from 0 to 15 years old between May 2012 and April 2014 in Reference Health Center, Unit of ENT diseases district IV Bamako Mali Patients Were included in this survey all the young patients whose ENT examination enabled to reveal an unspecified pathology of the middle ear and / or inner ear Methods Current clinical and complementary examinations (tonal audiometry, radiography of the mastoid bone, scanner…) were realized. The audiometric patterns of 236 patients reveal: -Conductive hearing loss is mainly encountered: 133 patients (56.35%) for theotitis media and 70 patients (29.70%) for rhinopharyngitis. - Sensorineural hearing loss represents 14.40 % (34patients).In analysing the causes of the acoustic neuritis we specially find out that meningitis cerebrospinalis: 30 patients (88.23%) and only 4 patients present a case due to ototoxic (quinine) drugs. Language disorders represent 8.82% (patients) in deafness of perception and four patients (1.69%) in deafness. Conclusion Thus taking into account the considerable frequency of the ear diseases in Mali, the hearing disorders are specially encountered. Deafness of the soundconducting apparatus prevails. Cerebro-spinalis meningitis is the first cause of the acoustic neuritis in Mali.