Asian Journal of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences

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Chemical component and acute toxicity study of Erythrococca anomala (Euphorbiaceae)

Erythrococca anomala (Juss. ex. Poir) Pain (Euphorbiaceae) is a medicinal plant widely used in sub-saharan Africa. It is popular against certain diseases such as malaria, arthritis, rheumatism and toothache. However, there are no data on its phytochemical and biological profile, hence the importance of this study is to search for chemical groups of this plant and to determine the toxicological parameters that justify its use in the traditional medicine. Standard characterization methods and thin layer chromatography (TLC) were used for the phytochemical screening. The acute toxicity study of Erythrococca anomala was performed according to the guideline OECD 423 using Wistar rats. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of polyphenols, alkaloids, catechol tannins, saponins, leucoanthocyanins, flavonoids, polyterpenes and sterols which could justify the biological and pharmacological properties of this herb. The acute toxicity study of the extracts, administered intraperitoneally in Wistar rats, was used to determine the 50% lethal dose (LD50) value to be 741.31 mg/kg of body weight (BW), 100% lethal dose (LD100) corresponding to 2000 mg/kg BW and maximum tolerated dose (MTD) to 700 mg/kg BW. These toxicological data allow us to qualify Erythrococca anomala at very low toxic hence its importance in the traditional use against malaria and multifaceted pain.

Author(s): Aka Patricea MB, Timothée OA, Félixa YH, Nicaisec BF, Gildasc G, Jeand AY