Ethnopharmacological relevance: Andrographis paniculata (Acanthaceae) is given from ancient times in Indian traditional medicine like Ayurveda and Unani for the treatment of gastrointestinal tract disorders, bronchial diseases, fevers, inflammatory diseases, liver disorders, parasitic diseases and snake poisoning. Aim of the study: Investigation of hydromethanolic extract of Andrographis paniculata in the treatment of ulcer by Indomethacin and Indomethacin plus pylorus ligation induced gastric ulcer in rats.
Materials and methods: The antiulcer activity of hydromethanolic extract of Andrographis paniculata (APE) was investigated using 36 rats. The first group was subjected as control, the second group was subjected to pylorus ligation on 6th day under ether anesthesia, and the third group was subjected to Indomethacin (20 mg/kg) for 5 days + pylorus ligation on 6th day under ether anesthesia. The fourth and fifth groups were administered with the 50% hydromethanolic extract of Andrographis paniculata (200 and 400 mg/kg/day, respectively). The sixth group served as reference antiulcer drug omeprazole (10 mg/kg/day). All animals were deprived of food (but not water) for 24 hours prior to being subjected to ulcerogenic challenge. At the end of study, the stomach tissue was cut, washed with ice cold saline. The tissue was fixed in 10% buffered neutral formalin solution for histopathological examination. Ulcer Index, pH, titrable acidity, gastric mucus, antioxidant activity, and gastric pepsin activity was evaluated by using tissue and gastric juice.
Results: APE showed dose-dependent ulcer protective effect in indomethacin plus pylorus ligation induced gastric ulcer. The % protection was found in group IV (19.32% & 30.75%), group V (62.17% & 67.47% %) and group VI (70.38% & 74.57%) when compared to PL group II and IND+PL group III, respectively. The APE showed highly significant enhancement of gastric wall mucus at the dose of 400 mg/kg. The TBARS level was significantly increased in group II rats and IND+PL group III rats respectively, while the level of GSH was significantly decreased as compared to control group. The pH was significantly increased with subsequently decrease in acidity with the treatment of APE. APE showed a marginal increase in pepsin activity compared to control group I rats. These observations were in good corroboration with the histopathological studies results.
Conclusions: The results of our study revealed that the extracts of Andrographis paniculata possess significant dose dependent gastroprotective and antisecretory effects by strengthening the gastric mucosa, decreasing the acidity of gastric juice and pepsin activity as well as restore the imbalance antioxidant activity. Further studies on other factors like H. pylori, PGs and cAMP, which play important role in ulcerogenisis may provide more insights on the antiulcerogenic activity of Andrographis paniculata.