Asian Journal of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences

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Research Article - Asian Journal of Biomedical and Pharmaceutical Sciences (2021) Volume 11, Issue 81

TET proteins and their role in regulation of DNA methylation.

Ten-Eleven Translocation (TET) proteins are enzymes that are capable oxidizing of 5-methylcytosine (5mC) into three biologically essential molecules: 5-carboxylcytosine (5caC), 5-formyl cytosine (5fC), and 5-hydroxymethyl cytosine (5hmC). In mammalian genes, TET proteins are categorized into three main members (TET1, TET2 and TET3), which basically contain a C-terminal catalytically active domain and a central region enriched with cysteine domain. Before the finding of TET proteins, DNA methylation was supposed to be irreversible epigenetic change. The discovery of the TET protein later revealed the DNA methylation process to be a reversible covalent modification catalyzed by DNA methyltransferase enzymes. In addition to regulating DNA methylation pathways, TET proteins play significant roles in controlling gene expression, epigenetic remodeling in stem cell segregation, embryogenesis, growth, and cancer. Beside the gene expression, the activities TET proteins can be altered by an array of cellular processes such as interaction with chromatin protein and other different small molecules. Here, we reviewed the current concepts regarding the structure of TET proteins, their role in DNA methylation, gene regulation, and their mutation which leads to development of certain cancer.

Author(s): Teka Obsa Feyisa, Getahun Chala, Tefera Belsty

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