International Journal of Pure and Applied Zoology

Guidelines for Authors

The authors are cordially invited to submit significant new findings of their research work papers in word document to the journal office via online submission http://www.editorialmanager.com/alliedacademies/ or e-mail: [email protected] (or) [email protected] along with a cover letter. The journal will cover the topics related to all branches of zoology like:Invertebrata, Chordata, Cell Biology, Genetics, Biodiversity, Evolution, Developmental Biology, Environmental Biology, Physiology, Aquaculture, Biochemistry, Bioinformatics, Biotechnology, Enzymology, Endocrinology, Entomology, Fishery Biology, Health and Nutrition, Immunology, Microbiology, Marine and Aquatic Biology, Molecular Biology, Neurobiology, Oncology, Parasitology, Poultry Science, Biodiversity, Molecular Biology, Sericulture, Stem Cell Research, Toxicology, Veterinary Science, Vermitechnology, Wildlife Biology, etc.

The editorial board of IJPAZ welcomes original novel contributions and reviews in word format. By submission of a manuscript an author certifies that the work is original and is not being considered simultaneously by other journals. All articles are subjected to critical reviews by referees.

Software and format: Manuscripts should be prepared in English using a word processor. MS Word for Windows and .docxfiles are preferred. Manuscripts may be prepared with other software provided that the full document (with figures, schemes and tables inserted into the text) is exported to a MS Word format for submission. The Times New Roman font is preferred. The font size should be 12 PT. Do not use desktop publishing software such as Aldus PageMaker or Quark XPress. If you have prepared your manuscript with one of these programs, export the text to a word processing format. Papers should be double spaced with ample margin. The page setup is A4 size. The papers should have the following sections. Name each file with the last name of first author.

Paper format Regular articles: Regular paper should describe new and carefully confirmed findings, and experimental procedures should be given in sufficient detail for others to verify the work. The length of a full paper should be the minimum required to describe and interpret the work clearly. Papers should be written in clear, concise language (English). The papers must have an abstract not exceeding 250 words and 6 Keywords. Although variations in accord with the contents of a manuscript are permissible, in general all papers should have the following sections: Introduction, Materials and Methods, Results and Discussion, Conclusions, Acknowledgments (if applicable) and References. IJPAZ model paper template file may be downloaded here (word.doc).

1. Title of the paper: The title must concise and informative and should not exceed the 60 characters (12-15 words) including spaces (with key words appropriate for retrieval purposes) and provide peer readers with a quick overview of the paper's contents. Avoid abbreviations and formulae whereever possible.

2. Name of the author(s) with initials and the name and address of the institution where the work was done must be given. Present address(es) of author(s) may be given if they are different from the above. Provide, also, with the e-mail address of first and/or the corresponding author so that an immediate communication with the editor is possible. This e-mail address also appears on the first page of the printed article.

3. Abstracts: All papers must have an abstract not more than 250 words of clear, informative and giving significant objectives, methodology, results and conclusion in the paper. Presentation of numerical results should be avoided as far as possible in the abstract.

4. Key words: Between 4 and 6 key words must be provided for the purpose of indexing and information retrieval.

5. Text: The paper must be divided into sections and subheadings starting preferably with 'Introduction' and ending with 'Conclusion followed by Acknowledgement'.

All papers cited in the text, tables, and figures must be included in the references and all papers cited the references section should be cited in the text. Authors should monitor references at all phases of manuscript preparation. References in the text should be cited by author and year. Single author: Amsath (2002) or (Amsath, 2002). Two authors: Annalakshmi and Amsath (2012) or (Annalakshmi and Amsath, 2012). More than two authors: Govindarajan et al. (2012) or (Govindarajan et al., 2012). In the event that an author cited has had two or more works published during the same year, the reference, both in the text and in the reference list, should be identified by a lower case letter like 'a' and 'b' after the date to distinguish the works.

6. Introduction: The introduction should introduce the research problem that the study was designed to address and its significance. It should provide a clear statement of the problem, the relevant literature on the subject, and the proposed approach or solution. What gap is the current study designed to fill? In other words, the introduction should provide the information for the reader that he/she will need in order to understand and appreciate the science you will report on later in the article.

7. Materials and methods: The materials and methods should be complete enough to allow experiments to be reproduced. However, only truly new procedures should be described in detail; previously published procedures should be cited and the relevant literature should be provided in the citation. The important modifications of published procedures should be mentioned briefly. Capitalize trade names and include the manufacturer's name and address. Subheadings should be used. Methods in general use need not be described in detail. All the data should be applied with statistics. If the manuscript reports on work conducted on vertebrate animals, the appropriate institutional approval number should be listed in this section of the text.

Statement of human and animal rights

When reporting experiments on human subjects, authors should indicate whether the procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional and national) and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975 (revised in 2000). If doubt exists whether the research was conducted in accordance with the Helsinki Declaration, the authors must explain the rationale for their approach, and demonstrate that the institutional review body explicitly approved the doubtful aspects of the study. When reporting experiments on animals, authors should be asked to indicate whether the institutional and national guide for the care and use of laboratory animals was followed.

Statement of Informed Consent

Patients have a right to privacy that should not be infringed without informed consent. Identifying information, including patients' names, initials, or hospital numbers, should not be published in written descriptions, photographs, and pedigrees unless the information is essential for scientific purposes and the patient (or parent or guardian) gives written informed consent for publication. Informed consent for this purpose requires that a patient who is identifiable be shown the manuscript to be published. Authors should identify Individuals who provide writing assistance and disclose the funding source for this assistance.

Identifying details should be omitted if they are not essential. Complete anonymity is difficult to achieve, however, and informed consent should be obtained if there is any doubt. For example, masking the eye region in photographs of patients is inadequate protection of anonymity. If identifying characteristics are altered to protect anonymity, such as in genetic pedigrees, authors should provide assurance that alterations do not distort scientific meaning and editors should so note.

8. Results: The results should describe the observations with clarity and precision. The results should be written in the past tense when describing findings in the authors' experiments. Previously published findings should be written in the present tense. The data should be arranged in a unified and coherent sequence so that the report is developed clearly and logically. The same data should not be presented both in tabular and graphic forms, which should be numerically (Arabic numerals as 1, 2, etc.) cited in the text and interpreted. Only such tables and figures as are necessary should be given. Interpretation of the data should be taken up under discussion; in some cases, however, it may be desirable to combine the results and discussion in a single section. Whenever possible use figures rather than tables as it is much easier to see trends in a graphical presentation of data. If you do use figures and tables each of these must be titled descriptively.

Results should be explained, but largely without referring to the literature. Discussion, speculation and detailed interpretation of data should not be included in the Results but should be put into the Discussion section.

9. Discussion: The discussion should interpret the significance of the findings in view of the results obtained in this and in past studies on this topic. A combined Results and Discussion section is often appropriate. Avoid extensive citations and discussion of published literature.

10. Conclusion: State the significance of the results in the conclusion in a few sentences at the end of the paper.

11. Conflict of Interest Statement: Authors must indicate whether or not they have a financial relationship with the organization that sponsored the research. Examples of potential sources of bias include affiliations, funding sources, stock ownership, honoraria, paid expert testimony, patent applications/registrations that may constitute conflicts of interest. These statement should be provided by the corresponding author on behalf of all authors when submit the manuscript.

12. Acknowledgment: This section is used to acknowledge the contributions of institution authorities who provided the facilities to carry out the research work or those anyone who assisted in the study whose contributions did not rise in the view of the principal investigator to authorship and to credit the funding agencies that supported the work, etc. should be brief.

References: References should be listed at the end of the paper in alphabetical order. Articles in preparation or articles submitted for publication, unpublished observations, personal communications, etc. should not be included in the reference list. Journal names are abbreviated according to Biological Abstracts and correctly format the references of your paper. Authors are fully responsible for the accuracy of the references.

Examples: All the references must be in the following order.

Amsath, A., 2002. Studies on predatory efficiency of the water stick insect, Ranatra filiformis on mosquito larva, Culex fatigans. J. Exp. Zool., 6: 93-98.

Annalakshmi, G. and Amsath, A., 2012. An assessment water quality of river Cauvery and its tributaries Arasalar with reference to physico-chemical parameters at Tanjore Dt Tamil Nadu, India. Int. J. App. Bio. Phar. Tech., 3(1): 269-279.

Govindarajan, M., Sivakumar, R., Amsath, A. and Niraimathi, S., 2012. Larvicidal efficacy of botanical extracts against Culex tritaeniorhynchus Giles and Anopheles subpictus Grassi (Diptera: Culicidae). Eur. Rev. Med. Pharm. Sci., 16: 386-92.

Smith, A.B., 1995b. The rise in blood glucose during hibernation of the golden headed plover Dickus birdus. J, Avian Metab., 20:19-21.

Smith, A.B., 1995b. The fall in blood glucose during hibernation of the golden headed plover Dickus birdus. J. Avian Metab., 20: 22-23.

Book

Oser, B.L., 1976. Hawk's Physiological Chemistry. Tata McGraw Hill Publishing Co. Ltd., New Delhi.

Chapter in an edited book

De Wilde, J., 1964. Reproduction. In: The Physiology of Insecta. Vol.I. (Ed. M. Rockstein). Academic Press, New York, pp: 18-58.

Thesis

Amsath, A., 1999. Studies on the female accessory reproductive glands and behavioural strategies of the water bug,Sphaerodema rusticum: A potential predator of mosquito larvae. Ph.D. Thesis, Bharathidasan University, Tiruchirappalli, Tamil Nadu, India.

13. Tables: Tables should be double spaced on separate sheets following the References section. The tables should be kept to a minimum and be designed to be as simple as possible. Tables are to be typed double-spaced throughout, including headings and footnotes. Each table should be numbered consecutively in Arabic numerals and supplied with a heading and a legend. The title should be placed at the top. Explanatory information and experimental conditions should be given as a note at the bottom. Explanatory information and experimental conditions should be given as a note at the bottom of the columns. Tables should be self-explanatory without reference to the text. The same data should not be presented in both table and graph form or repeated in the text. Tables should be prepared in Microsoft Word.

14. Figure: Illustrations must be numbered consecutively in Arabic numerals. They should be cited in the text as Figure 1, Figure 2, and so on. Begin each legend with a title at the bottom of the illustration and include sufficient description so that the figure is understandable without reading the text of the manuscript. Information given in legends should not be repeated in the text. Graphics should be prepared using applications capable of generating high resolution (300 dpi) JPEG before pasting in the Microsoft Word manuscript file.

Identification: It is particularly important that the authors get their biological material authentically identified and quote at least once, on its first citation in the paper, the technical name of the species concerned in full preceded by its popular name where possible, e.g. The water bug Sphaerodema rusticum (Fabr). Genus and species names should be italic.

Color figures may be submitted for review, but they will appear in black and white in print. You may request that the figure be provided in color as an online enhancement to the electronically published paper. Figures may be published in color if deemed necessary by the Editor in Chief, subject to a printing cost to be met by the authors of the accepted paper.

Footnotes: Footnotes should be avoided as far as possible. Essential footnotes may, however, be indicated by superscribed reference marks (*, †, ‡, ).

Identification: It is particularly important that the authors get their biological specimen authentically identified and quote at least once, on its first citation in the paper, the technical name of the species concerned in full preceded by its popular name where possible, e.g. The water bug Sphaerodema rusticum (Fabricius).

Cover photographs: Figures and photographs of high quality of a submitted paper will be considered for use on the cover.

Peer review: All papers are subject to peer review. Authors are requested to suggest at least 2 independent reviewers (preferably non-native) with appropriate technical expertise although the editor may not necessarily approach them. Their affiliation and e-mail address should be provided as fully as possible. However, the IJPAZ has an identified panel of reviewers and may designate other reviewers based on the topic of a paper require.

Proofs and Reprints: Electronic proofs will be sent (e-mail attachment) to the corresponding author as a PDF file and should be returned with one week of receipt. Corrections should be restricted to typesetting errors. Authors are advised to check their proofs very carefully before return, since inclusion of late corrections cannot be acceptable. Corrected proofs are to be returned to the publishers. The authors are responsible for the contents appeared in their published manuscripts.

Page proofs are considered to be the final version of the manuscript. The Editorial Board reserves the right to make changes like typographical or minor clerical errors if necessary in the research articles. No changes will be made in the manuscript at the proof stage.

Authors will have free electronic access to the full text (PDF) of the article. Authors can freely download the PDF file.

Reprints may be purchased. Order for supply of reprints may be sent while returning the galley proofs after corrections. No reprint/s will be supplied free of charge. Reprint Order Form and Price List will be sent with the galley proofs.

Copyright: Each manuscript must be accompanied by a statement that it has been neither published nor submitted for publication (except thesis), in whole or in part, either in a serial, professional journal or as a part in a book which is formally published and made available to the public. For the mutual benefit and protection of authors and publishers it is necessary that the authors agree to automatic transfer of the copyright (download here) to the publisher before publication of the work.

Paper Acceptance: The final decision on publication is made by the Editor-in-Chief upon recommendation of Editorial Board Members. If the manuscript is accepted for publication in IJPAZ, it must not be published in any periodical elsewhere.

Brief checklist for submission.

Have you provided a Title Page?
Have you provided *corresponding author communication address email id and mobile number information at the end of the paper?
Have you provided an Abstract of 250 words?
Are your Tables denoted by Arabic numerals, and are they in order as cited in the text?
Do your Tables submit at the end of the text file ?
Are your Figures denoted by Arabic numerals, and are they in order as cited in the text?
Have all your Figures been submitted text file or JPEG or GIF TIF or files?
Are your References cited in the required format of the Journal?
Is institutional approval number provided for the mammalian animal used for the experiment?
Have you obtained permission and submitted documentation for all Personal Communications cited?

Reviews: Submissions of reviews and perspectives covering topics of current interest are welcome and encouraged. Reviews should be concise and no longer than 5-6 printed pages (about 10 to 20 manuscript pages

We shall try our best to complete review process within 30 days from the date of submission. The article processing charge is mandatory for all articles. In order to preserve a high quality of this journal, the Editorial Board may wish to set some rules from time to time.

Review articles are an attempt by one or more authors to sum up the current state of the research on a particular topic. Ideally, the author searches for everything relevant to the topic, and then sorts it all out into a coherent view of the “state of the art” as it now stands. Review Articles should inform about:

The main researchers working in a field
Recent major advances and discoveries
Significant gaps in the research
Current debates
Future directions

Reviews are also peer-reviewed.

Short Communications: A Short Communication is suitable for recording the results of complete small investigations or giving details of new models or hypotheses, innovative methods, techniques or apparatus. The style of main sections need not conform to that of full-length paper. Short communications are 2 to 4 printed pages in (about 5 to 10 manuscript pages) length. They are limited to a maximum of two figures and one table. They should present a complete study that is more limited in scope than is found in full-length papers. The items of manuscript preparation listed above apply to Short Communications with the following differences: (1) Abstracts are limited to 100 words; (2) instead of a separate Materials and Methods section, experimental procedures may be incorporated into Figure Legends and Table footnotes; (3) Results and Discussion should be combined into a single section.

Review Process

The IJPAZ shall not accept or publish manuscripts in its online journals without prior peer review. There shall be double blind review process of manuscripts. Reviewers are unaware of the identity of the authors, and authors are also unaware of the identity of reviewers. There are at least three or more reviewers for the total number of articles in each issue. Editors of IJPAZ shall follow the review process which shall be clearly defined. The referees shall treat the contents of papers under review as privileged information not to be disclosed to others before publication. The editor evaluates the recommendation and notifies the author of the manuscript status. The manuscript may be:

Accepted as it is
Accepted after minor revision
Accepted after major revision
Rejected

The comments of the anonymous reviewers will be forwarded to the authors, and when the authors are ready to submit their revised manuscript, read the comments of the editors and reviewers, and respond to them by telling what modifications they have made in their manuscript or why they have not made the suggested changes.

Decisions will be made as rapidly as possible, and the journal strives to return reviewers’ comments to authors within 3 weeks. The editorial board will re-review manuscripts that are accepted pending revision. It is the goal of the IJPAZ to publish manuscripts within 8 weeks after submission.

NOTE: If minor revision is required, authors should return a revised version as soon as possible within 10 days. If major revision is required, authors should return a revised version within 20 days.

All contacts shall be by e-mail. All the authors should have an e-mail id.

Authors are requested to submit their papers electronically through the website of Login (First register your name in this journal and submit the article in word document by using this link: http://www.editorialmanager.com/alliedacademies/.

If you are unable to submit your paper through online submission, kindly send it to [email protected]

The Editorial Board reserves the right to make changes if necessary mainly to improve the quality of the paper.

Those who are submitting their manuscripts are requested to send one printed copy each along with the “Copyright transfer agreement form” which is available in the web site.

The responsibility of the contents rests upon the authors and not upon the publisher.

Authors are requested to prepare the manuscript according to our journal “Instructions for authors” guidelines.

Article Processing Charge

IJPAZ publication is strictly financed from the article processing fees received from authors to cover operational expenses. Page charge Each page (A4) will be charged to authors at US$150.00. For each image additional US$250.00 will be charged to the authors. Payment may be made before publishing the manuscript/s.In special cases page charge may be reduced.

Galley proofs
Unless indicated otherwise, galley proofs will be sent to the first-named author and should be returned within 48 hours of receipt.

Reprints
Reprints may be purchased. Order for supply of reprints may be sent while returning the galley proofs after corrections. No reprint/s will be supplied free of charge. Reprint Order Form and Price List will be sent with the galley proofs.

Referees
Generally, submitted manuscripts are sent to two experienced referees from our panel. The contributor’s may submit names of three qualified reviewers who have had experience in the subject of the submitted manuscript, but are not associated with the same institution(s) as the contributors nor have published manuscripts with the contributors in the past 10 years.

Ethics
When reporting experiments on human subjects, indicate whether the procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible committee on human experimentation (institutional or regional) and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2000 (http://www.who.int/bulletin/archives/79(4)373.pdf). Do not use patients' names, initials, or hospital numbers, especially in illustrative material. When reporting experiments on animals, indicate whether the institution’s or a national research council's guide for, or any national law on the care and use of laboratory animals was followed.