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The effects of preoperative smoking cessation on the healing of fractures and postoperative complications: A systematic review and meta-analysis

Introduction: Smoking is a known risk factor for fracture healing and postoperative complications. However, most evidence upon the association between bone healing and smoking was investigated in retrospective studies or laboratory-based animal studies. This meta-analysis evaluated the clinical efficacy of preoperative smoking cessation on the healing of fractures and postoperative complications.

Evidence Acquisition: MEDLINE, EMBASE, CNKI and the Cochrane Database were retrieved for identifying relevant study. Four studies, including three Randomized Controlled Clinical Trials (RCTs) and one Non-Randomized Concurrent Controlled Trial (NRCCTs), involving a total of 510 patients, were included.

Evidence Synthesis: In the patients with preoperative smoking cessation, the risk of overall postoperative complications was lower (Risk Ratio (RR) 0.37; 95% Confidence Interval (CI) 0.26 to 0.52; P=0.49) when compared with the patient without smoking cessation. Preoperative smoking cessation reduced the risk of wound-related complications ((RR) 0.21; 95% (CI) 0.11 to 0.39; P=0.42), recurrent surgery ((RR) 0.23; 95% (CI) 0.08 to 0.67; P=0.42) and additional complications ((RR) 0.41; 95% (CI) 0.25 to 0.67; P=0.85). One NRCCT showed that the risks of fracture non-union (P=0.03) and osteomyelitis (P=0.49) in the patients with preoperative smoking cessation were reduced.

Conclusion: Our study supports the role of preoperative smoking cessation on orthopaedic surgery outcomes.

Author(s): Wei Min, Rongze An, Songjun Li, Jiaying Feng, Jin Yang, Zhiming Huang