Review Article - Journal of Cardiovascular Medicine and Therapeutics (2017) Volume 1, Issue 2
Prevalence and risk factors of arterial hypertension: A literature review.
Background and aim: The Arterial Hypertension is part of the group of cardiovascular diseases that represent the highest proportion of death causes by diseases thus highlighting the need to evaluate the risk factors that contribute to this clinical situation and its high prevalence. The aim of this review is to assess the prevalence of arterial hypertension and its risk factors. Methods and findings: This study is a literature review of published studies from 2003 to 2015, held in the following databases: Scientific Electronic Library Online (SciELO), Scientific Open Access Repository of Portugal (RCAAP) and online Knowledge Library (B-ON). For this research were selected 14 articles and 3 websites/reports were identified that corresponded to inclusion criteria. The prevalence of arterial hypertension in the reviewed studies ranged from 23.6% to 54.8%. Discussion: It is more prevalent in female gender, with the highest incidence in adults and the elderly, African-native peoples and lower education. Arterial hypertension is positively associated to other diseases and genetic and environmental factors, such as: obesity, high sodium ingestion, sedentary lifestyle, stress, alcohol consumption and smoking. Conclusion: It was observed that the development of several studies are important to contribute to the public health policies and actions, by providing indications to combat the increasing prevalence of Arterial Hypertension and risk factors, in order to better control this disease.Author(s): Isabel C Pinto, D Martins